Medical sources of electromagnetic interference (EMI) to pacemakers / ICD

Medical sources of electromagnetic interference (EMI) to pacemakers / ICD

Medical sources of electromagnetic interference (EMI) to pacemakers / ICD (implantable cardioverter-defibrillator) include:

  1. Electrocautery: Interference can be reduced placing the indifferent electrode as far away from the pacemaker and better still by using bipolar cautery instead of unipolar cautery.
  2. Radio-frequency ablation
  3. Radiation therapy
  4. Electrical nerve and muscle stimulators
  5. Dental instruments
  6. Spinal cord and deep brain stimulators
  7. Defibrillators
  8. Capsule endoscopy
  9. Electroconvulsive therapy
  10. Magnetic resonance imaging

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