Newer groups of drugs for treatment of AF include:
Atrial repolarization delaying agents like vernakalant
Newer class III agents
Sodium-calcium channel blockers
Stretch receptor blockers
Gap junction modifiers
[Jacob S et al. Pharmacotherapy of atrial fibrillation: a pathophysiological perspective and review. Am J Ther. 2011;18:241-60]
Intravenous vernakalant has been approved in the European Union for the rapid conversion of recent-onset atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm. Advantage of vernakalant is that it acts on atrial specific channels without any propensity for ventricular arrhythmias. It blocks atrial-specific potassium and sodium ion channels, prolonging atrial refractory periods slowing atrial conduction in a rate dependent manner.