Persistent shunts after Fontan

Persistent shunts after a Fontan type of surgery can be due to various reasons like dehiscence of patches used for repair, dehiscence of suture lines, formation of new venous collaterals, distal aortopulmonary collaterals or the development of pulmonary arteriovenous fistulae. Shunts may also be produced therapeutically by interventional fenestration or it could be a fenestration left during the repair itself, to relieve undue venous congestion, though at the expense of systemic desaturation.

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