Signs in pulmonary embolism

Signs in pulmonary embolism

Signs in pulmonary embolism

Westermark sign is a focal oligemia of the lung due to occlusion of a branch pulmonary artery due to pulmonary embolism. The vessel proximal to the occlusion is dilated.

Hampton’s hump is a peripheral pleural based wedge shaped lung opacity due to pulmonary infarction in a case of pulmonary embolism.

Knuckle sign is the abrupt cut off of a pulmonary artery branch due to pulmonary embolism.

McConnell’s sign is akinesia of right ventricular mid-free wall with sparing apex seen in acute pulmonary embolism. This finding has a sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 94% [1].

Reference

  1. M V McConnell, S D Solomon, M E Rayan, P C Come, S Z Goldhaber, R T Lee. Regional right ventricular dysfunction detected by echocardiography in acute pulmonary embolism. Am J Cardiol. 1996 Aug 15;78(4):469-73.