Types of aortic regurgitation (AR) based on mechanism

Types of aortic regurgitation (AR) based on mechanism

Following are the types of aortic regurgitation based on the mechanism:

Type 1: Normal valve cusps with incomplete coaptation due to aortic root dilatation and a central regurgitant jet.
– Any of the components of the aortic root including annulus, sinuses of Valsalva and sinotubular junction exceeds normal limits.

Type 2: Eccentric regurgitant jet due to cusp prolapse or fenestration.
– When the free edge of one or more aortic cusps passed beyond the plane of the aortic annulus, it was considered as prolapse.

Type 3: Retraction with poor quality of cusp tissue producing a large central or eccentric jet.

This classification was used to predict surgical repairability and outcome based on transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) [1]. In this study, agreement between TEE findings and surgical inspection findings was 93%. Final surgical approach could be predicted by TEE in 86% of those undergoing aortic valve repair and in 93% of those undergoing valve replacement.


  1. le Polain de Waroux JB, Pouleur AC, Goffinet C, Vancraeynest D, Van Dyck M, Robert A, Gerber BL, Pasquet A, El Khoury G, Vanoverschelde JL. Functional anatomy of aortic regurgitation: accuracy, prediction of surgical repairability, and outcome implications of transesophageal echocardiography. Circulation 2007;116:I264–269.